Councelling and Care Advice.
Date: 11th july 2013.

Seminar on Health and Diet.
Date:25th july 2013.

HIV Infection

T Cells

  • The Primary pathogenic mechanism in HIV infection is the damage caused to the CD4+ T lymphocyte.
  • The T4 cells decrease in numbers and the T4:T8(helper:suppressor) cell ratio is reversed.
  • Infected T4 cells do not appear to release normal amounts of interleukin2, gamma interferon and other lymphokines.This has a marked damping effect on cell mediated immune response.

B Cells

Though the major damage is to cellular immunity, human mechanisms are also affected.

  • Helper T cell activity is essential for optimal B cell function, particularly in responding to thymus dependent antigens.
  • AIDS patients are unable to respond to new antigens.
  • An important feature in HIV infection is the polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes leading to hypergammaglobulinemia.All classes of immunoglobulins are involved but levels of lgG and lgA are particularly raised.In infants and children,lgM levels are also elevated.
  • The hypergammaglobulinemia is more a hindrance than a help because it is composed mainly of 'useless immunoglobulin' to irrelevant antigens and also autoantibodies.This may also be responsible for allergic reactions due to immune complexes(type 3 hypersensitivity).

Other Cells

  • Monocyte-macrophage function is also affected, apparently due to lack of secretion of activating factors by the T4 lymphocytes.
  • As a result, chemotaxis, antigen presentation and interacellular killing by monocytes/macrophages are diminished.
  • The activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphcytes is also affected.